Emission limits

  1. First regulation: Clean Air Act – 1980 in USA Limit: 80 gHC/m3 of product loaded
  2. EPA: 35 gHC/m3 of product loaded & locally 10 or 6 gHC/m3
  3. European Directive EC94/63:
    Application fuels with RVP > 276 mbar: 35 gHC/m3 10 gHC/m3 Gothenburg Protocol
  4. TA-Lulft 01 in Germany, LRV in Switzerland, NER in Netherland: 50 mg HC/ m3 of air emitted & 1mg / m3 for benzene


NB: Methane is excluded
difficult to recover, only destruction possible by combustion with secondary emissions

Energy versus emission level

Emission in g/m3351010,05
Energy Required in KW/h0,080,090,10,2
g/m3 recovered117911941199,41199,916
Delta rec. in g155,40,5


Energy consumption increases with lower emission requirements
Energy consumption difference between 1g/m3 and 0,15 g/m3 is 2x
Extra 0,5 gram recovered costs 0,1 kWh or 200kWh per kg
To make this energy we need to burn 75 x the equivalent as fuel in a power plant


The Environment does not profit from extreme low emission legislation (COx, NOx)